Tutorials

Overview of tutorials

Time Track 1: Medical imaging Track 2: 3D imaging Track 3: Colour management Track 4: Image quality
08:30 3D videoscopy and video analysis in laparoscopic surgery Gonioradiometry: an introduction to 3D measurement Practical colour management tutorial

Methods for image quality assessment

Unfortunately ,this tutorial has been cancelled!

11:00 Technology aspects and future trends in CT imaging Ray tracing, Constructive Solid Geometry and the modelling of physical systems iccLabs: making and using ICC v5 profiles Quality issues in Immersive media technology experiences

TRACK 1: MEDICAL IMAGING

8:30am  3D videoscopy and video analysis in laparoscopic surgery

Course responsible: Dr. Ole Jakob Elle

Laparoscopic surgery is now a well-established surgical approach in almost all kinds of abdominal procedures. The technique is associated with less patient trauma, less risk for infections and reduced overall cost related convalescence time of the patient. However, the introduction of endoscopic surgery has some disadvantages compared to open surgery. The loss of depth perception using 2D-videoscopes makes the endoscopic skill and experience of the surgeon very important. This drawback has led to the development of 3D-videoscopes, 3D-cameras and Head Mounted Displays (HMD), which makes the visualization more like the one you get in open surgery by direct visualization of the field. HMD’s helps the surgeon to be immersed by the video images. When the 3D-videoskopic systems first was presented in the 90’s, the small 3D-cameras and especially the LCD-screens in the Head Mounted Displays had lower resolution than in the case of 2D cameras combined with a monitor (CRT-screen). At the Department of Surgery at the University of California a comparison between direct view, mono view, enhanced mono view and stereoscopic view is performed (3). Based on this study it seems like experienced endoscopic surgeons prefer resolution with the loss of depth information. Less experienced surgeons though, tends to have shorter learning curve with 3D visualization than with 2D (1). A comparison of direct vision against 2D and 3D display systems on surgical task efficiency is also performed (2). There has been a continuous development on 3D videoscopic systems from the 90’s until today, and the last couple of years the systems use 3D-cameras with HD resolution, and the use of stereoscopic HD-screens and polarized glasses for the stereoscopic visualization. Now, with the same resolution and contrast in 3D visualization and 2D visualization there should be of scientific interest to renew the studies comparing 3D with 2D in videoscopic procedures to check whether procedure time and parameters addressing the quality of work is affected.

For the purpose of diagnosis and image navigation, developments on novel Image processing algorithms on medical images like MRi, CT and Ultrasound has been an important research area the last 20 years. Due to the digitalization of video, image processing on live video e.g. for sport events and the feature tracking on players and addition of graphical elements augmented onto the video. The introduction of 3D video in laparoscopic surgery opens up for real-time image processing on the live videostream from the videoscopes for quality enhancement, the extraction of special features on the organ surface, and in combination with navigation and eventually robotic surgery.

Course responsible biography 

Ole Jakob Elle was born in Arendal, Norway 12th of April 1967. He studied at Norwegian Institute of Technology from 1986-1990 at Department of Production and Quality Engineering and started a PhD in underwater robotics at Department of Cybernetics in collaboration with Department of Production and Quality Engineering in 1992. From 1996-1998 he worked as a product developer at Luxo ASA working with medical light systems. He joined The Intervention Centre at Rikshospitalet, Oslo University Hospital in 1998 to be a bridge between the product development department at Computer Motion in Santa Bargbara, CA, USA and the cardiac surgeon at the hospital within robotic surgery. The Intervention Centre is also his Current place of work, where he now is heading the section for Technology Research there. He holds a 20% position as Associate Professor at Department of Informatics, University of Oslo in the research group ROBIN (Robotics and Intelligent systems) Ole Jakob Elle defended his PhD in robotic surgery in 2004.

11:00am Technology aspects and future trends in CT imaging

Course responsible:Dr. Anne Catrine Martinsen

Over the last 30 years, the technological developments in CT imaging have been tremendous. New detectors, X-ray tubes, post processing tools and reconstruction techniques have been introduced. New imaging techniques likeCardiacCT,CTcolonography, CT perfusion and CT spectral imaging have been introduced lately. CT perfusion give information about blood flow in brain, liver or heart. Especially in the diagnostics of brain stroke, CT perfusion is a useful tool. Spectral imaging in CT are used for tissue characterizing and differentiation, and is also useful to avoid metal artefacts (in example from hip proteases) in CT images.  3D-imaging and volume rendering give possibility of virtual colography and cardiac CT. This introduction of new techniques have resulted in an increase in the number of CT examinations performed.  In 2008, CT examinations accounted for 80% of the total population radiation exposure from medicine in Norway (The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority). Therefore, optimisation of the CT examinations with respect to radiation dose and image quality is necessary. All the CT vendors are working on dose reducing technology, and among others automatic tube modulation and ECG modulation have been introduced to ensure adequate image quality independent of anatomical area or patient size, be mentioned. Also, fundamental changes in the image reconstruction process have been re-introduced lately, called iterative reconstruction, which improves image quality and thereby gives the possibility to reduce patient radiation dose.

This tutorial aims to give a brief introduction to CT imaging:

  • Detector design
  • Basic principles of CT imaging
  • Image reconstruction
  • Filtered back reconstruction
  • Iterative reconstruction
  • Post processing filters
  • Radiation dose and radiation protection
  • Future trends in CT
  • Cardiac CT
  • CT perfusion
  • CT spectral imaging
Course responsible biography

Anne Catrine Martinsen is Head of section for Diagnostic physics, The Intervention Centre, and Associate Professor II at the Department of Physics, University in Oslo. She received a PhD from UIO in 2011. During the last ten years she has been:

-          Leader of the Educational board in the Norwegian society for medical physicists

-          Leader of the National reference group for diagnostic physics, An initiative of the Norwegian radiation protection authority

-          Board member of scientific advisory board, PET core facility, in the HSØ RHF

-          Scientific reviewer for European Radiology and Acta Radiologica

-          Host for The 3rd Norwegian PhD Conference in Medical Imaging” in collaboration with the Norwegian Research School in Medical Imaging in 2011

-          The Norwegian society for medical physicist’s Ph.D. award 2011

-          The Norwegian society for medical physicist’s award for profiling the field of medical physics 2008.

 

TRACK 2: 3D IMAGING

8:30am Gonioradiometry: an introduction to 3D measurement

Course responsible: Aditya Sole

Colour is normally used to describe the appearance of an object with respect to human perception of the objects. We measure the colour of an object surface with the goal of objectively describing and quantifying our visual impression with measurement values. Measurements let us communicate the colour of an object surface in numerical terms. Colour measurements are usually performed by recording spectral reflectance or transmittance of the object/material. The geometrical conditions are important for correct measurement of reflectance. The CIE (CIE 15.2) has recommended different measurement geometries for measurement of reflectance of surface materials. The graphic arts industry uses 0º:45º geometry and vice versa, while 8º:d and vice versa are widely used in the paint, textile and plastic industries. The d:d and d:0º are used for transparent material.

For some materials (especially gonio-chromatic packaging materials) the reflectance on the material will depend on the illumination and measurement angle. For these materials most of the light gets reflected at specific angle causing a specular reflection. Appearance of these gonio-chromatic materials therefore changes with the change in illumination and viewing geometry. These materials produce a very desirable appearance by exhibiting a shift in perceived colour depending upon the illuminating and viewing angle. This change/shift is achieved due to varying reflections at different viewing angles. Due to this property of the gonio-chromatic materials, single combination of illumination/viewing angle for measurement of colour is not sufficient to objectively describe the perceived colour. When we choose a measuring instrument to measure these materials, the illumination and measurement geometry of the instrument will affect the outcome of the measurement. As these materials change their appearance according to the angle of illumination and viewing, for complete characterization of such materials they should be measured at more than one illumination/viewing angle combination.

In this tutorial we will explore in brief how the physical colour measurements of such gonio-chromatic materials change with the change in viewing/measuring direction thus requiring a multi-angle measurement technique/instrument to characterize and communicate the colour information of these materials.

Course responsible biography

Aditya Sole is a PhD researcher at Gjøvik University College. He completed a BSc from PVG’s College of Engineering and Technology, Pune University, India in year 2005. He subsequently worked in a Graphic Arts industry (pre-media department) in Delhi) as Team Leader. In 2007 he completed his MSc in Digital Colour Imaging from London College of Communication, University of the Arts, London, UK. From 2008 till 2012 he was working as a Laboratory Engineer at the Norwegian Color Research Laboratory, Gjøvik University College. His other tasks at the Colourlab were assisting the Masters and PhD students in the Laboratory, work in the PSO audit team for PSO certifications in the Norwegian Graphic Arts industry and co-ordinate writing of funding applications for the EU research funding calls (MarieCurie ITN). Since late 2012 he has been working as Project Manager for the EU funded CP7.0 project and as a PhD researcher at the Colourlab. His topic for PhD research is based on Soft metrology of non-diffuse materials. The aim in his PhD research is to develop and evaluate procedures for measuring appearance of non-diffuse materials, considering aspects such as measurement geometry and its correlation with visual appearance as perceived by human observers.

11:00am Ray tracing, Constructive Solid Geometry and the modelling of physical systems

Course responsible: Dr. Simon McCallum

Raytracing has long promised to be the future of imaging.  Finally the processing power of graphics cards GPUs has reached a level where brute force approaches to ray tracing are possible in near realtime.  This tutorials will discuss raytracing as a technique for displaying artificial scenes and the benefits of having a light propagation model of imaging.  Some of the topics covered will include: an introduction to raytracing, the realtime options for raytracing, Constructive Solid Geometry for scene creation, BDRF in raytracing, and as a bonus the oculus rift and viewing raytraced images in VR.

Course responsible biography

Simon McCallum is an Associate Professor at Gjøvik University College, where he heads the Game Technology Lab and leads the bachelor program in Game Programming and the games technology track of the Master program in Applied Computer Science.  McCallum graduated with a PhD from the University of Otago in New Zealand, and has 15 years of experience in games research and development, both in academia and industry. He studies computer graphics and artificial intelligence at Masters level, and has conducted research in Augmented Reality and Video Games. This research includes many collaborative projects with government and industry on serious games primarily for education and health, both in New Zealand and Norway. These include Eyetoy gaming interfaces for Physiotherapists (NZ), Serious Games for KidSmart system (NZ), Evaluation of the use of games for the Norwegian Army Military Academy (NO), Awareness games for Teenage Mothers (NZ), SoSbarnebyer Games (NO) and Game for Health in the ACTIVe project – where funding bodies include the government of New Zealand, IBM, the Norwegian Army Military Academy, ACC NZ, TV2 Norway and the Norwegian Research Council.

 

TRACK 3: COLOUR MANAGEMENT

8:30am Practical colour management tutorial

Course responsible: Dr. Peter Nussbaum

The aim of the workshop is to demonstrate the principles of ICC-based colour management from input (camera/scanner/display) to the output (printer). In order to understand the factors affecting the appearance of display or print, the differences between device calibration (and parameters) and device characterisation need to be addressed.

Consequently, input-, display- and output profiles will be generated and applied to a simple workflow. The importance of using appropriate source-, output and simulation profiles including the corresponding colour rendering intents for certain purposes will be discussed. To verify whether a colour reproduction or simulation (proofing) is within a certain colour tolerance (e.g. according to ISO 12647-2 or ISO 12647-7), colour measurements need to be completed and analyzed.

Course responsible biography

Peter Nussbaum obtained his MSc in imaging science from the Colour & Imaging Institute, University of Derby, UK in 2002. The MSc thesis investigated the factors affecting the appearance of print. He received his PhD degree in imaging science in 2011 from the University of Oslo, Norway. The area of study was “Colour Measurement and Print Quality Assessment in a Colour Managed Printing Workflow". Peter Nussbaum is a lecturer at Gjøvik University College within the Department of Computer Science and Media Technology where he is teaching digital image reproduction and colour management. He is a member of the Norwegian Colour Research Laboratory. His professional memberships include IS&T, TAGA and IC (International Circle of Educational Institutes for Graphic Arts: Technology and Management) and he is a committee member of ISO/TC130 representing Norway. Before joining Gjøvik University College in September 2000, Peter Nussbaum was an Application Engineer for Colour Management and consultant for GretagMacbeth (today X-rite) in Switzerland.

11:00am iccLabs: making and using ICC v5 profiles

Course responsible: Dr. Phil Green

Colour management is about to take a leap forward. The current ICC colour management architecture has been universally adopted in graphic arts, desktop computing, photography and many other fields, yet as research in colour imaging technology progresses, the limitations of traditional ICC workflow are becoming more apparent.

In response, ICC has initiated development of a next-generation profile format, provisionally known as v5, through ICC-Labs. The v5 specification will include many new features not previously available, such as full support for spectral data and profile connection using any illuminant and colorimetric observer. It will also include new methods of defining the gamut boundary, and support for BRDF.

Researchers and developers in colour and imaging will find that moving from the older v2 format to v4 and the new v5 architecture will allow them to automate many tasks in establishing a colour imaging workflow. The tutorial will demonstrate the construction and use of v4 and v5 profiles, and provide the background to the features introduced.

Course responsible biography

Phil Green is Professor of Colour Imaging at the Norwegian Colour & Visual Computing Lab. He has an MSc from the University of Surrey and a PhD from the Colour & Imaging Institute at the University of Derby. Previously he was a Reader in Colour Imaging at the University of the Arts, London, and Head of Research at London College of Communication. He has been Technical Secretary of the International Color Consortium since 2005.

 

TRACK 4: IMAGE QUALITY

8:30am Methods for image quality assessment (Cancelled!!!)

Course responsible: Dr. Marius Pedersen

Image quality assessment is a topic of growing interest that has also been the subject of much recent research. In this tutorial, we examine both subjective and objective methods for image quality assessment. Common subjective methods, like rank order, pair comparison, and category judgment are briefly presented together with the important aspects of the experimental design and analysis of the results. For the objective methods, we will introduce image quality metrics and look at different types of metrics. Next, we will present a couple of metrics in more details, and show how they are evaluated against subjective results. Finally, we illustrate and show examples where metrics have been used to evaluate quality in different applications.

Course responsible biography

Marius Pedersen is a researcher at the Norwegian Colour and Visual Computing Laboratory at Gjøvik University College, Norway. His work in centred on image quality assessment. He holds a BSc in Computer Engineering (2006) and a MiT in Media Technology (2007), both from Gjøvik University College. He received his PhD in Color Imaging in 2011 from the University of Oslo, Norway. He is currently the head of the Norwegian Colour and Visual Computing Laboratory.

11:00am Quality issues in Immersive media technology experiences

Course responsible: Dr. Andrew Perkis

The talk will start by defining and discussing the aspects of Immersive Media Technology Experiences followed by a review of the current quality issues related to the area. The ICT and digital media industry is currently changing towards becoming user centric attempting to optimize the users Quality of Experience. Convergence of the media and ICT industry has lead to a paradigm shift away from using the network centric QoS as quality measure for networked media handling towards putting into place a quality measure covering the end to end points in the multimedia system as well as considering context. The media industry is all about content and its users consuming ever more rich digital media on a plethora of different devices over various networks1. The user’s expectation has been driven toward increasingly higher quality, including dependability and security. This drive gives rise to the problem of defining, modelling and measuring the quality both for the users and the providers. These differ, especially as the context is important for the user, however, the context often remains unknown for the creator, content owner and provider. This is also true for the network conditions and device capabilities at the users end. Another problem is differentiating between the technical quality assessment, measuring degradations due to system parameters such as capture, media processing and network conditions as opposed to the actual aesthetic quality intended by the creator.

In order to find a measure for the user’s perceived quality of the received media presentation we have been active in the development shifting from using simple Quality of Service (QoS) as a measure of the quality to the broader concept of Quality of Experience. More recently the definitions of QoE have been in driven by the media representation and delivery community with close links to other fields such as Psychology and social sciences. A formal definition is given in the Qualinet White paper published in 2012.

The results from quality assessments in multimedia communications let us extend our work moving into new digital media enabling more immersive experiences. Immersive media supports natural interactions between people and their environment. The media considered still consist of audio and visual presentations enriched by interactivity by user interactions including traditional interactivity as well as novel methods such as haptics and explore use of other media such as olfactory and taste. The ultimate goals are to digitally create real world presence and describe and define the work within a new field denoted Immersive Media Technology Experiences (IMTE). IMTE is a concept incorporating several disciplines including Media Technology, Information and Communication Technology, and Media Studies. In this way IMTE can encompass diverse core competencies covering fields such as communications, information retrieval, entertainment and social networks. To achieve these goals a holistic multidisciplinary effort is required. The IMTE platform defines our major research directions around Network Media Handling, QoS Mechanisms for dynamic Networks and Quality Assessment as well as their interactions through a common architecture. We have approached the design and development process of our research as a cyclic process where each stage of the cycle depends and influences the next.

Course responsible biography

Andrew Perkis was born in Norway 1961. He received his Siv.Ing and Dr. Techn. Degrees in 1985 and 1994, respectively. He was a research scientist at SINTEF DELAB from 1986-1989, working primarily on speech coding and mobile satellite communication systems. From 1989-1991 he joined the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Wollongong, Australia, as a lecturer. On return to Norway he has held various positions at the Norwegian Institute of Technology. Since 2003 he has held the position of Professor at the Department of Electronics and Telecommunications. In 1999/ 2000 he was visiting professor at the School of Electrical, Computer and Telecommunications Engineering at the University of Wollongong in New South Wales Australia.

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